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Naturalness, Rarity, and Artistry - A Guide to 'Stone' Collecting

By OGP Reporters / Members Contribute File Photos

Oh Good Party

Regularly staying updated on market trends allows you to understand the current price levels and market dynamics of your collectibles. This helps you to better evaluate your collection and adjust your collecting strategy accordingly. For instance, considering factors such as rarity in the market, recent auction records of similar quality items, etc., enables a more accurate valuation and facilitates informed management and investment decisions.

"The 24th Shanghai Mineral and Fossil Exhibition" welcomes enthusiasts to indulge in a gathering of precious natural treasures from around the globe, including minerals, fossils, meteorites, ornamental stones, and jewelry. This exhibition not only offers a glimpse into the mysteries and wonders of nature but also serves as a platform for knowledge exchange and scientific exploration among rock collectors. It provides enthusiasts with profound inspiration and understanding, allowing them to delve deeper into the marvels of the natural world.

Now, let's summarize the collection knowledge covered in this exhibition:


Minerals are primarily inorganic compounds formed through non-biological processes. They are typically solid and possess specific chemical compositions and physical properties, with an ordered atomic structure forming crystalline minerals. Aggregates composed of many mineral single crystals grown in the fissures or cavities of rocks are known as mineral crystals. Every year, dozens to hundreds of new minerals are discovered, with currently around three to four thousand gemstone specimens documented. However, only several dozen types of gemstone minerals are commonly traded in the market. They are composed of the Earth's most abundant eight major elements: potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, silicon, oxygen, aluminum, iron, as well as trace elements responsible for coloration. The crystalline structures formed through geological processes typically result from prolonged geological activities such as temperature and pressure changes, metamorphism, and other geological phenomena. For example, minerals like corundum, beryl, and tourmaline are commonly found in continental crust and are highly valued for their beauty, durability, and rarity. In collections, specimens of precious metals and gemstones hold exceptional value.


Fossils are the remains or traces of ancient organisms or activities, which have been preserved in rocks through the sedimentation process over long periods of time in geological strata. The most common fossils include bones and shells. Fossils document the evolutionary process of life on Earth, providing valuable clues for scientists studying the origin and evolution of life. This is a highly complex process involving the interaction of biological, physical, and chemical phenomena. The formation of fossils requires specific conditions: firstly, the deceased organisms need to be rapidly buried in sand, mud, or river silt without decomposition; secondly, these organic remains should not rot but gradually be replaced by minerals; thirdly, in order for fossils to remain unchanged for millions of years, they must undergo no further geological changes after petrification. The main types of fossils include body fossils, trace fossils, and chemical fossils. In the field of collection, people often collect ammonites due to their high ornamental value and good preservation. The value of terrestrial biota fossils is generally higher than that of marine biota fossils, while marine biota fossils are higher than plant fossils. Complete animal and plant fossils are more valuable than incomplete ones, but the authenticity of fossils has always been a concern, as there are many forgeries in the market.


Meteorites, also known as "falling stars," are fragments from celestial bodies such as comets, asteroids, or meteoroids. The confirmed types of meteorites include three categories: stony meteorites, glassy meteorites, and stony-iron meteorites. Originating from outer space, they traverse through the atmosphere and reach the surface of planets or moons. Meteorites are composed of minerals such as iron, nickel, and silicates. High-carbon meteorites also contain a variety of organic compounds including amino acids, nucleic acids, fatty acids, pigments, and 11 other organic substances. Therefore, it is believed that meteorites have a significant relationship with the origin of life on Earth. Meteorites are generally classified into three major types: stony meteorites, primarily composed of rocks with silicate mineral compositions; iron meteorites, consisting largely of iron and nickel; and stony-iron meteorites, containing significant proportions of both rocks and metallic components. In reality, iron meteorites are not very common, and stony-iron meteorites are even rarer. The value of meteorites lies in their composition and weight, but it should be noted that some meteorites containing radioactive elements can be harmful to humans. Due to their mysterious and precious nature, meteorites have attracted the attention and collection of numerous astronomy enthusiasts. In recent years, meteorite auction records have been astounding, leading to a surge in meteorite collectors. However, meteorite identification is challenging, and there are currently no specific analysis techniques available to verify their authenticity.

Ornamental stones(Qi stones)

Ornamental stones refer to naturally occurring rocks with unique characteristics in terms of morphology, texture, color, and other aspects, belonging to a variant of minerals. Their formation process may be influenced by geological processes, climate changes, or other natural factors, resulting in distinctive appearances and structures, presenting a peculiar beauty and rich cultural connotations. In China, the history of collecting ornamental stones dates back to the Shang and Zhou dynasties (around the 20th century BC). The Song dynasty (10th to 13th centuries AD) was the heyday of ancient Chinese stone appreciation culture, where many literati were obsessed with "ornamental stones," considering those with bizarre shapes and features such as wrinkles, leaks, thinness, and transparency as treasures, which became popular among the upper class society. Even today, ornamental stones remain the most cherished collectibles among scholars and literati. Firstly, the "form" requires the stone to have an intact shape, exquisite craftsmanship, aesthetic appeal, and visual comfort. Secondly, the "color" of good ornamental stones is usually vibrant and diverse, with mixed colors, dual colors, and single colors following, with perfect harmony among color, shape, and content. Thirdly, the "quality" of ornamental stones must be hard, with a smooth and delicate texture being preferable. Lastly, the "pattern" entails clear and interesting patterns and textures, with smooth and soft texture patterns. Collectors are typically interested in ornamental stones with unique shapes, rich colors, solid texture, exquisite patterns, and artistic viewing value.


Jewelry is a form of adornment crafted from precious metals and adorned with both inorganic and organic gemstones. Since ancient times, jewelry has not only served decorative purposes but also symbolized power and prestige, thus being regarded as immensely valuable wealth throughout history. Many famous jewels worldwide originate from gem-grade minerals, carrying the natural wonders and unique beauty of these gemstones. For instance, the uniqueness of black opals lies in their magnificent spectrum of colors, each gem being one-of-a-kind, resembling works of art crafted by nature. Emeralds, with their captivating green hues, exude a deep sense of natural vitality. Similarly, rubies, symbolizing the blood of Jesus, possess an air of mystery and antiquity. The largest blue diamond in the world, weighing 45.52 carats, is known as the "Hope Diamond." Additionally, embedded in the front of the Imperial Crown is a 170-carat irregular red spinel, named the "Black Prince's Ruby," belonging to the British royal family since 1367. There is also the "Star of Africa," weighing 530.4 carats, cut from a 3,106.75-carat rough diamond mined in South Africa, later set in the scepter of the English king and cut into 105 diamonds. Jewelry constitutes an indispensable part of asset allocation for many investors. As of the first quarter of 2024, exquisite jewelry, colored diamonds, and the three major gemstones (ruby, sapphire, and emerald) continue to exhibit a robust upward trend, showcasing their unique charm.

In this mineral and fossil exhibition, mineral crystals are the most eye-catching exhibits. Fossils, meteorites, and ornamental stones generally exhibit some signs of artificial processing, while the jewelry on display mainly consists of commercial-grade quality.

If you are interested in stone specimens from around the world or wish to participate in auctions to bid on rare gem-grade items, here are some considerations for collecting mineral crystals, fossils, meteorites, and ornamental stones:

Authenticity and Source

Ensure that the items you collect are natural and untreated, and trace their origins as much as possible. When making purchases, choose reputable sellers or dealers, especially those with good reputations and excellent reviews. These dealers typically provide detailed information about the items and can provide certificates or appraisal reports to prove their authenticity and value. The aim is to avoid purchasing counterfeit or potentially counterfeit items. It is essential to personally inspect the items, conduct thorough examinations, and assessments. If you encounter unusually low prices or details that do not match standard conditions, exercise caution and try to obtain more information and evidence. For items of higher value, it is advisable to seek assistance from professional appraisers or institutions to ensure their authenticity and value. This is not only for the protection of personal investments but also for the maintenance of collecting culture and market order.

Storage Conditions

Mineral crystals, fossils, meteorites, and ornamental stones are all composed of naturally formed substances from the Earth, some of which are relatively fragile and susceptible to environmental factors such as light, heat, dryness, humidity, and wind exposure. To preserve their original state and value, appropriate storage conditions should be chosen, such as moisture-proofing, dust-proofing, and avoiding exposure to direct sunlight. Moisture can lead to surface corrosion or mold growth, while dust can affect appearance and luster, and prolonged exposure to sunlight may cause fading of colors or surface cracking. Maintaining good conditions allows you to enjoy and preserve these precious natural treasures for the long term.

Display Methods

If you intend to showcase your collection, selecting suitable display methods can effectively protect them. Common methods include using transparent display boxes or cabinets to prevent the items from accidental damage or touch. This is particularly important for mineral crystals with sharp edges or fossils with fragile surfaces that are prone to damage from contact or impact. Transparent display boxes or cabinets also serve to prevent dust and dirt from accumulating on the collection, making them easy to clean and showcasing your professionalism. Should you plan to sell your collection in the future, this will also help enhance the trust and interest of potential buyers in your collection, thereby increasing its attractiveness and value.

Knowledge Base

We consistently encourage collectors to acquire as much background knowledge about their collected items as possible. Only by enhancing one's expertise can accurate decisions be made, including understanding appraisal methods, valuation standards, and market trends. With these insights, you can mitigate risks, better manage and showcase your collection, elevate your status as a collector, and engage more effectively with fellow collectors. Establishing an emotional connection with your collection allows for a deeper appreciation and enjoyment of the treasures it holds.

Value Assessment

Regularly staying updated on market trends allows you to understand the current price levels and market dynamics of your collectibles. This helps you to better evaluate your collection and adjust your collecting strategy accordingly. For instance, considering factors such as rarity in the market, recent auction records of similar quality items, etc., enables a more accurate valuation and facilitates informed management and investment decisions. Especially in investment scenarios, it's crucial not to solely focus on short-term conditions, as sudden market fluctuations are often irrational. Therefore, sound financial planning is essential for making appropriate decisions.

Communication and Sharing

Participating in collectibles-related exhibitions, networking events, or professional collectors' clubs can help you understand market trends and the circulation of collectibles. Through these interactions, you can gain insights into the tastes, preferences, and collecting strategies of different collectors, thereby broadening your perspective on collecting. In the process of socializing, you can also acquire more professional knowledge, experiences, and skills, thereby enhancing your level of collecting expertise and professionalism. By sharing your collection, you can let others understand your passion for collecting and your collection items. This can help you connect with like-minded individuals, establish long-lasting friendships and collaborations, and collectively experience the joy and satisfaction of collecting. Not only does this enrich your social circle, but it also provides more opportunities and resources for future collecting activities and collaborations.


Shanghai Guanzhi Mineral Museum

Address: 66 Vanguard Street, Ala Town, Minhang District, Shanghai

The Shanghai Guanzhi Mineral Museum serves as a social practice base for students in Shanghai and a popular science education base in Minhang District. The museum houses a collection of excellent mineral crystals that are worth a visit.

The first floor of the museum features a science popularization hall, which is open to the public year-round free of charge. It is divided into three sections: rocks, mineral crystals, and fossils. The rock section showcases various rock superlatives, the three major rock types, the Bowen series, and methods for distinguishing genuine from fake rocks, providing visitors with a comprehensive understanding of stones. The mineral crystal section is arranged according to the five internationally recognized chemical classification systems, allowing visitors to gain a systematic understanding of the minerals that make up stones. The fossil section presents representative specimens based on geological ages, offering profound insights into the evolution of life.


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